Cultured muscle tissue-based protein products, also known as cultured meat, are produced through in vitro myogenesis involving muscle stem cell culture and differentiation, and mature muscle cell processing for flavor and texture. This review focuses on the in vitro myogenesis for cultured meat production. The muscle stem cell-based in vitro muscle tissue production consists of a sequential process: (1) muscle sampling for stem cell collection, (2) muscle tissue dissociation and muscle stem cell isolation, (3) primary cell culture, (4) upscaled cell culture, (5) muscle differentiation and maturation, and (6) muscle tissue harvest. Although muscle stem cell research is a well-established field, the majority of these steps remain to be underoptimized to enable the in vitro creation of edible muscle-derived meat products. The profound understanding of the process would help not only cultured meat production but also business sectors that have been seeking new biomaterials for the food industry. In this review, we discuss comprehensively and in detail each step of cutting-edge methods for cultured meat production. This would be meaningful for both academia and industry to prepare for the new era of cellular agriculture.